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Remembering Jane Straus | May 18, 1954—February 25, 2011 | Author of the original

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Dictionaries don’t all agree on the definitions of these words and neither do style manuals. So we will attempt to shed more light on the distinctions.

Abbreviations According to Dictionary.com, an abbreviation is a shortened or contracted form of a word or phrase, used to represent the whole, as Dr. for Doctor , U.S. for United States , lb. for pound .

Abbreviations

Initialisms and acronyms are two types of abbreviations that are used to shorten phrases.

Initialisms acronyms

Initialisms are abbreviations that are pronounced one letter at a time. Examples: – FBI – HTML – IBM – DVD – BTW (by the way) Note that most people would simply call these abbreviations, which is fine. Some would call them acronyms, which sticklers would challenge.

Examples:

Acronyms are abbreviations that are pronounced as words. Examples: – NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) – AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) – OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) – SPA (Society of Professional Accountants) – WASP (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant) – ASAP (as soon as possible) – Radar (radio detecting and ranging) – Scuba (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus)

Acronyms

Do you ever wonder about the origin of a word or when it came to be a common part of the language? According to Ask.com, the word acronym originated in 1943: “As wartime production of names using initials reached an all-time high, it was high time to give a name to the growing arsenal of alphabetic abbreviations. That need was met in a note in the February 1943 issue of American Notes and Queries : ‘Your correspondent who asks about words made up of the initial letters or syllables of other words may be interested in knowing that I have seen such words called by the name acronym , which is useful, and clear to anyone who knows a little Greek.’ ” “Greek? Yes, acronym follows the model of other designations for types of words, like synonym, antonym, and homonym . The -nym means “a kind of word”; acro- means “top, peak, or initial,” as in acrobat or acrophobia .

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In the discussion above, we emphasize that increases in the discriminating power of selection can favor streamlining, leaving open the question of how small genome size confers a fitness advantage. In streamlined marine organisms there is a trend to higher proportions of nucleotides (A+T) and amino acids (for example, the substitution of lysine for arginine) that have lower N content, indicating that streamlining selection acts to reduce the amount of nitrogen needed for cell replication ( Giovannoni et al., 2005 ; Grzymski and Dussaq, 2012 ). Evidence that streamlining selection is driven by fitness advantages of reduced cellular P quotas is, so far, not convincing, but that may be because the data needed to test this hypothesis are less readily available ( Vieira-Silva et al., 2010 ); in the oceans, N and P tend to be co-limiting ( Falkowski et al., 1998 ). Comparative studies of streamlining in P-limited and P-replete systems might shed light on this issue.

Reductions of cellular N and P quotas are not the only factors that have potential to drive streamlining selection. Streamlined marine bacteria include some of the world’s smallest organisms ( Chisholm et al., 1992 ; Pants for Women On Sale Black Cotton 2017 26 30 Dondup Outlet How Much Top Quality Cheap Price c4SRKb81a
; Ghai et al., 2013 ), raising the possibility that increased surface-to-volume ratios might also drive streamlining in some cases. A metaproteomics study of Pelagibacter in the ultra-oligotrophic Sargasso Sea showed that a strikingly high (67%) proportion of cellular protein is devoted to transport functions, suggesting that high surface-to-volume ratios are a factor in the success of these very small (ca 0.01 μm 3 ), streamlined cells ( Sowell et al., 2008 ). In a twist on this perspective, Thingstad argued that bacterioplankton may increase their cell size to succeed by defense specialism– –growing too large for their predators. He theorized that the surface-to-volume ratio is less important than the surface-to-‘cell requirements of a limiting element’, and that larger cells can maintain the benefits of smaller cells by scaling up their cell composition by accumulating non-limiting nutrients such as carbon in an N- and P-limited system ( Thingstad et al., 2005 ). The theory that selection favors small genomes because they can be replicated more rapidly, thus shortening generation times, has largely been ruled out by studies that found no correlation between generation time and genome size ( Free Shipping Clearance Exclusive Womens 422285023449 Trainers Bugatti YTwY6
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; Vieira-Silva and Rocha, 2010 ).

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